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REVIEWS IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE (RAS) aims to provide an international forum for the dissemination of review articles. RAS welcomes comprehensive reviews in the area of agricultural science: breeding science, crop science, weed science, horticulture, plant pathology, applied entomology, plant nutrition, soil science, applied microbiology, applied biochemistry, bioproduction chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, food science, landscape architecture, forest science, wood science, agronomy, irrigation, drainage and rural engineering, rural planning, agricultural environmental engineering, agricultural information engineering, grassland science, and animal science. RAS has a distinguished editorial board with extensive academic qualification, ensuring that the journal maintains high academic standards and has a broad international coverage.

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1. Submission of manuscript

Submission of manuscripts to RAS must be made using the online Editorial Manager® system by logging on to <> and uploading all material files following the instructions provided on the web site. On behalf of all the co-authors (if any), the corresponding author will be required to submit a cover letter, in which the author confirms that the manuscript, or any part of it, has not been published yet or is not under editorial consideration for any other journals. The authors who are unable to submit online or other technical difficulties, please contact:

c/o The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University
  Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
  TEL: +81-58-293-2996
  FAX: +81-58-293-2992


2. Editorial Review

All the manuscripts submitted, regardless solicited or unsolicited, are peer-reviewed by outstanding reviewers anonymously, who are specialized in the field of the author’s choice at manuscript submission and designated by the editorial board. The evaluation of the manuscripts is made solely based on originality, logic and significance of the contents. To minimize the potential conflict of interest in the review process, the author needs to indicate a few potential reviewers of his/her choice with their e-mail addresses or request a specific individual who is not involved in reviewing the manuscript. All the procedures from the submission to acceptance of the manuscript are confidentially managed in the online system.

3. Originality and Copyright

The preparation of a review article must closely rely on the literature contributed by fellow scientists, therefore, authors should take the precaution of being accused of plagiarism when they take cut and paste for citing and quoting from some other publications to formulate an original idea and novel expressions. To verify the originality of the submitted manuscript, the editorial board possibly investigates the suspicious manuscripts of plagiarism by using CrossCheck® service. 

 In addition, the authors must obtain permission from the copyright holders to reproduce the previously published figures or tables and clearly identify them in the legend or footnote in the manuscript.

4. Preparation of Manuscript

The manuscript should consist of items in the following order: title page, abstract, main text, acknowledgments, references, legends to figures (photographs, illustrations, graphs etc.), figures and tables. Do not embed figures and tables within the main text. The main text may be divided into several chapters with appropriate short headings and subheadings. All manuscripts must be written in English. In case of linguistic deficiencies of the submitted manuscript, a certification for English proof reading may be requested.

Length of Submission and Other Requirements

The length of submissions must be between 5,000 to 10,000 words, including at least 30 references. Solicited submissions will be categorized into either a full length review or a mini-review. The manuscript for a mini-review should be less than 5,000 words on limited themes.

Articles must be written using Times New Roman in font size 12 point in Japanese A4 size (210 × 297 mm) or US Letter Size (8½ ×11 in.) paper with 24 to 26 lines per page. The lines should be numbered along the left margin, and the margins should be 25 mm on all sides. Pages should be numbered consecutively at the bottom center option. Manuscripts and tables should be prepared with Microsoft Word, while the figures should be prepared with JPEG, TIFF, PDF or EPS formats.

Page Format and Arrangement of Included Materials

First Page should include the title of the article, total number of words including references and legends, name of author(s) with their affiliation and address. The corresponding author’s name and e-mail address should be clearly indicated. The first and last names of the author(s) should be written in full, and the middle name(s) should be abbreviated to initials.

Second Page should provide an Abstract, not exceeding 300 words. Abbreviations should be avoided in the abstract. Three to six key words should be listed in alphabetical order.

Main text should begin from the third page and continue. Acknowledgments and references should follow the main text. After references, subsequent sections should be legends to the figures collected in one or two pages, figures and tables.

Citation of References

Within the text, references should include by name of author and year of publication, such as Abdullh and Awaya (2010). Multiple references cited at the same site of the text should be arranged chronologically and separated by semicolons. If a reference cites a publication written by two authors, the name of both authors should be indicated. If the cited publication is written by three or more authors, only the first author should be named, followed by ‘et al.”.

For the reference section, the list of references should first be arranged in alphabetical order of first author’s name, and then chronologically. If more than one article is cited for the same first author with the same year, the order of the cited articles should be arranged alphabetically by the second and subsequent authors’ name. The publications, by the same author(s) or by the same first author with the abbreviated co-authors in the text as ‘et al.’ in the same year, should be listed as 2012a and 2012b. If the number of authors in a cited reference exceeds ten, mention by name only the first ten authors and add et al. to complete the author listing. If the cited reference is in a language other than English, at the end of this reference, the original language (such as French, German, Chinese or Japanese) should be included. Personal communications based on unpublished works (those not easily accessible to the scientific public such as private communications in letters and emails) should be mentioned only in the text without a reference.

Individual entries should be formatted as follows, depending on the type of materials cited. 

(Journal article)

Kondo S, Nakajima S and Unno M (2012) Ratiometric fluorescence detection of anions by an amide-based receptor bearing pyrenyl groups. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 85: 698-700.

Fieser LF and Fieser M (1959) Steroids. Reinhold Publishing Co., New York.

(Chapter in a book) .
Conkie D (1986) Separation of viable cells by centrifugal elutriation. In: Animal Cell Culture - A Practical Approach (Freshney RI, ed.). pp.113-124. IRl Press. Oxford.

Figures and Tables

Figures (photographs, illustrations and graphs) should be prepared in final printed size in more than 300 dpi. Figures should not exceed 80 mm (single column) or 165 mm (double column) horizontally and 190 mm vertically. Lettering must be sufficiently large and clearly readable (Century font in size 8 or more). The size of lines in illustrations should be 0.2 mm or more. Legends to figures should be cumulated in one or two pages and presented first. Then, each figure should be numbered in order of appearance with Arabic numerals, and presented one figure per page.

Tables with suitable brief titles should be numbered with Arabic numerals and presented in order of appearance and presented one table per page. Vertical lines should not be used. Any explanations, if needed, for understanding the table may be provided at the bottom of the table. Footnotes, if needed, should be labeled as a), b), c) etc. and typed on the same page below the table.

Each figure’s and table’s position in the main text should be clearly indicated in the main text.


Special abbreviations should be given in parentheses after the non-abbreviated full description upon their first appearance in the text. The International System of Units (SI) should be used ( Genus and species names/terms of organisms and normally-italicized words should be types in italics (e.g: Escherichia coli, in vitro).


During the submission process, the corresponding author should be indicated the names and e-mail addresses of two potential reviewers of their choice for manuscript review. This will help the editorial committee in the choice of pertinent reviewers for the submission. Processing of the manuscript may be delayed, if this step is omitted.

5. Proofs

Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, it undergoes copyediting, typesetting and reference validation to provide the best possible, highest quality publication. The proof will be sent to the corresponding author, and it should be corrected and sent back promptly within 72 hours (or three working days) to avoid a delay in publication. Corrections to the proof are limited to those on misprints and other copyediting errors. Occasionally, the editorial board may revise the accepted manuscript to align with the journal’s specifications.

6. Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

RAS subscribes to the revised guidelines on good publication practice as issued by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) of March 7, 2011. These guidelines incorporate,  (1) COPE guidelines were originally proposed in 1999, (2) the Code of Conduct developed in 2003, (3) Best Practice Guidelines developed in 2007 and (4) Revised Guidelines for journal editors. []

Responsibilities of Editors, Peer Reviewers and Authors are briefly stated below.

Responsibilities of Editors

Fair Play: Submitted manuscripts are evaluated for intellectual content only, disregarding ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors. 

Confidentiality: Confidentiality of submitted intellectual property is strictly maintained. These materials are accessible only to reviewers, other editorial advisers, as appropriate.

Publication decision: Acceptance, revision or rejection of submitted manuscript is made by the Editor in Chief, guided by other editors and/or reviewers of that submission.

Conflicts of Interest: Editors and peer reviewers of the submitted manuscript will ensure that unpublished materials in the submission will never be used in their research publications, without written consent of the author(s) of submission.

Responsibilities of Peer Reviewers

Promptness: All invited referees for a submitted manuscript will offer timely review of the assigned manuscripts. In case of conflict of interest or lack of qualification to assess the manuscript, they will recuse themselves promptly and notify either the handling editor or the Editor in Chief of their inability.

Confidentiality: Confidentiality of submitted intellectual property is strictly maintained. The contents of the assigned manuscript will not be discussed with a third party, unless authorized by the Editor in Chief.

Objectivity: Reviewers are responsible for maintaining high standards of objectivity in assisting the editors to make their decision of acceptance, revision or rejection of the submission.

Reference citation practices: RAS being a review journal, peer reviewers should check whether previously published studies have been appropriately cited by the authors and bring to the attention of authors any notable omissions for inclusion.

Conflicts of Interest: Peer reviewers of the submitted manuscript will ensure that unpublished materials in the submission will never be used in their research publications, without written consent of the author(s) of submission.

 Responsibilities of Authors

Responsibility: All authors of a submission take public responsibility for the content of their review.

Reporting standards: Authorship of a submission is limited to those who have made intellectual contribution to the conception, analysis and writing. The listing of authors should be decided by prior consultation among the authors themselves. The corresponding author have the responsibility in checking that (a) all co-authors have approved the final submission version of the text; (b) copyright permission(s), if necessary for previously published materials have been obtained from the parties concerned. Plagiarism avoidance will be strictly enforced.

Submission standards: All authors assure that their submission to RAS do not fall foul of multiple, redundant or concurrent publications, as outlined in the COPE guidelines.

Malpractice Statement

Editors of RAS assure that they have a duty to act if misconduct by authors and/or reviewers or an allegation of misconduct is brought to their notice, according to item 11 (‘Dealing with possible misconduct’) and item 12 (‘Ensuring the integrity of the Academic Record’) of COPE’s 2011 guidelines for journal editors.

Wherever applicable, the editors will follow the COPE flowcharts for misconduct.